In this article we will talk about the upper floor types in the building construction. As we all know it depends on the arrangement of the working beams and girders to support the paving, and the material used in the construction of the entire system.
Types of Upper Floors
The upper floors might be extensively ordered into the accompanying various types:
There are three primary types of timber floors:
1. Single floors
They are the least expensive type of wooden floors. They are simple in construction and the habitually utilized in residential buildings. These floors are constructed by fixing 25 to 30 mm. thick planking or boarding to wooden joists known as “spanning joists” divided at 30 to 40 cm. separated. The crossing over joists are set along the limited ability to focus the room and are nailed to timber divider plates fixed in the dividers on either end. The range for single floor is restricted to 3.66 m., with respect to more prominent range the joists become exceptionally profound and consequently this framework demonstrates uneconomical. The profundity of joists relies on the stacking condition of the ground surface. The joists are structured both for quality and inflexibility. As it were, the joists ought to be to such an extent that they may securely convey the floor loads without deflection. The joists ought not be permitted to come in contact with green mortar or masonry as this would cause the woodwork to spoil and rot. In this way a hole is left between the finish of the joists and the divider, with the goal that three primary circulation of air around the closures of the joists. On the off chance that by any possibility, there is a slight droop in the joists, there is each chance of the roof (assuming any) fixed to joists to split.
2. Double Floors
For this situation the most brief range of the room is more than 3.66 m., and it is wanted to give a timber floor, double sort of floor might be constructed. The range of double floors is limited to 7.32 m., beyond which framed floors must be embraced. In double floors the connecting joists don’t traverse the entire room, yet lay on different joists set at right edges to them. The joists are called restricting joists or folios and are put over the limited ability to focus. In this way, in the double floor, the connecting joists bolster the boarding and the folios bolster the floor load through spanning joists. The inside to focus separating of the covers changes from 1.8 to 2.4 m. At their finishes the folios lay or stone on concrete layouts implanted in the dividers. Beyond what many would consider possible, the fasteners ought not be set promptly over entryway or window openings. On the off chance that this can not be maintained a strategic distance from, they should lay on lintel or light emissions. which may length over wharfs between the openings.
3. Framed Floors
At the point when the most brief range of the room or corridor surpasses 7.6 m., framed floors are given. In this arrangement of wooden deck, boarding is upheld by spanning joists laid corresponding to the long range or at right edges to crossing over joists. The covers are additionally upheld or fixed into huge and overwhelming pillars called supports which are set corresponding to the limited ability to focus. The middle to focus dividing of the supports relies on the stacking conditions and the size of the fasteners.
At their finishes, the braces are bolstered on stone or concrete formats implanted in dividers. To maintain a strategic distance from the loss of progress or to lessen the thickness of floor, the fasteners are typically framed into the supports by methods for tusk the tenon joint. A hole is left between the dividers and end of support to guarantee free circulation of air at the closures to stay away from the deformity of decay or rot of timber. Note that the closures of two covers from inverse sides ought to never be framed into the support at one spot, as it would debilitate the brace considerably. The fasteners ought to be framed in stunned fashion.
Timber Floors Supported on Rolled Steel Joists
This arrangement of ground surface is like normal timber floor aside from that wooden joists are supplanted by moved steel sections which are accessible in longer lengths. This empowers the utilization of lighter sections of wooden part which eventually makes the floor economical. So as to diminish the profundity of floor, the joists supporting the ground surface are scored over the top ribs of the brace and are made to settle upon point iron spikes dashed on either side of each moved steel joist.
Flagstone Floors Resting on Steel Joists
It is a modest and simple type of floor construction. On the off chance that the width of the room isn’t more than 3.66 m., moved steel joists (R.S.J’s) of little sections are divided at 30 to 45 cm., focus to focus along the width of the room, 38 mm., thick flagstone of width equivalent to the middle to focus dispersing of the joists are put on the lower spines of the moved steel joists (R.S.J’s). Portion over the flagstone is then loaded up with light weight concrete, lime concrete, moorum or mud and so forth., so the consolidated thickness of filling lies around 13 mm., over the ribs of joists. At long last, tiles, concrete, flagstone or some other wanted kind of ground surface can be laid upon the filled material. On the off chance that lime concrete is utilized as filling material, the steel joists are shielded from the rusting or destructive action of lime by giving a tirade of concrete around them or by applying a layer of bitumen or paint on the outside of the joists.
In the event that the most brief range of the room surpasses 3.66 in its dimensions, the littler steel joists are upheld by greater moved steel joists or steel light emissions structured sections. The steel bars range the width of the room and are dispersed at 2,4 to 3 m, separated.
Jack Arch Flooring
This kind of ground surface might be constructed by utilizing blocks or concrete. The curved length between the lower ribs of moved steel joists separated at focus to focus separation not surpassing 1.2 to 1.5 m. The curve given an ascent of 1/twelfth of the range. As the curve action of the floor creates tension in the supporting dividers, gentle steel ties (at the very least three of every inlet) are given in end ranges at appropriate separation intervals. The distance across the tie pole changes from 18 to 25 mm., and they are generally divided 1.8 to 2.4 m. separated.
The tie bars are tied down into each divider with a strong washer. The floor might be done with tile concrete mosaic or some other wanted completing in the wake of occupying the space over the curve with lime concrete or other filling material. The roof in this sort of construction isn’t plain and this is considered a disadvantage of this deck.
It is a type of fortified concrete floor section construction in which the portion of concrete beneath the impartial pivot of the chunk is expelled in order to shape ribs at short separations. The ribs demonstrate monolithic-partner with the concrete garnish and carry on like T-pillars and chunk construction with arrangement of little firmly separated ribs. So as to get a plain roof impact, the space between the ribs is often rounded with an honor shut made out of dirt, fiberglass, PVC or concrete. This kind of piece is additionally named as bless square section. Bless square pieces are economically utilized in buildings like emergency clinics, inns, schools, offices and so forth.
Precast Concrete Floor
With the improvement of precast concrete constructions procedure, the precast units like floor chunk floor section pillars or supports, lintels and so on., are as a rule effectively produced by different plants. The precast units of the structured profundities are utilized in the floor construction. The individuals are made of such sizes can be conveniently taken care of and shipped.