Types of Scientific Research: Examples, Methods, and Process
There are several types of scientific research that you must know. In this article, we will discuss the types of scientific research and methods, examples, and process followed in scientific research.
What is Scientific Research?
The process of collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating data in a planned and systematic way to find alternative solutions to the problems that occur is called scientific research.
We have been observing natural events and social phenomena around us for centuries. By reasoning about these issues, we try to find the information that will meet our curiosity and discover what the events stem from. In the early days, people used their feelings and beliefs to solve the problems they faced.
At that time they were getting information from people around them whom they believed to be knowledgeable about issues they could not resolve. However, there was no system for how accurate and reliable this information was. Philosophers, the first scientists of history, taught their students and communities to approach the events they encountered with suspicion and to be inquisitive with their teachings.
They told us that they should not act with pure knowledge without reasoning and criticism. Over time, people’s curiosity and desire to learn led to the critical thinking process and skepticism towards events.
Over time, countless scientists have made incredible contributions to science in the race to reach scientific knowledge. In this way, the methods to be followed in reaching scientific research have also evolved. The main purpose of scientific research, which is formed within the framework of correct, reliable, and universally accepted rules, is to understand what is happening around us within this framework, to find their main source, and to explain them with cause and effect relationship.
What is the Scientific Research Process?
Experiment and observation are important in scientific research methods. Research should be based on provably accurate information and should not contradict previous scientific sources of a similar nature. Therefore, it is necessary to be aware of this cumulative process and to proceed step by step.
The scientific research process consists of the following steps;
- Description of the topic or problem and observation
- Estimation and hypothesis stage
- Determining the problem that will be the subject of the research
- Determining the work mission
- Explanation of parameters
- Determining the scale to be used and measuring techniques
- Quantitative and experimental studies
- The process of analyzing data, information, or data
- Link building and correlation studies
- Identification of results and constraints
- falsifiability testing
- Ability to make predictions based on results
- Presentation of scientific research to experts and examination by relevant persons
- Creation and rearrangement of flow in case of falsification
As a necessity of scientific methods, certain rules and restrictions have been introduced for each step, from finding the appropriate source to be the subject of the research and determining the appropriate problem, how to make observations and estimations, from determining the types of scales to transforming the estimated data into common knowledge. In other words, for the formation of scientifically valid knowledge, there must be feedback to control a flow within a certain set of rules.
Things to Consider While Doing Scientific Research?
The research process should be consistent from start to finish: The scientist should be able to focus on events and phenomena with a broad perspective and strategic moves. In addition, it is necessary to contribute to scientific research with creative ideas and to put these ideas on paper as soon as possible. When logically sorted, spelling mistakes that cause misunderstanding should be corrected, and if necessary, paragraphs should be changed.
Sufficient space should be reserved for the introduction, development, and conclusion sections. At first, as many sources as possible should be researched and the most appropriate subject should be determined carefully. While determining the subject of the research, it should be determined whether the previous studies on the same subject are open to development. We should pay special attention to the fact that the field of study is within our area of expertise.
It is necessary to decide to work on a subject that interests us and we can research with patience. Due care should be taken to ensure that the determined research topic is not a repetition of previous studies, and a topic that will not have a shortage of resources should be preferred. Various publications, articles, thesis studies related to the research subject should be examined. The time target at which scientific research will end should be predictable. The topic should not be too short or too long.
The accuracy of the research must be testable. The suitability of the research methods and the scale types to be used should be strictly controlled. We should be selective about reading and note-taking, and we should only take the necessary action on matters related to the research topic. It is very important to evaluate the results of scientific research in practice, to allow for the analysis and estimation, as well as for its development.
Why is Scientific Research Important?
The most important feature of scientific research is that it gives the researcher the ability to perceive, make sense of and interpret the world he lives in from a different perspective. At the same time, scientific research allows society to share and benefit from important information that facilitates human life and increases the quality of life. Since people interact with each other in the society they belong to, they change their point of view by taking advantage of each other’s knowledge. With a narrow view, scientific research methods cannot be fully implemented.
Scientific research process It requires being able to think strategically, to think strategically, to cooperate, and to communicate with others. All these competencies are acquired, planned, and developed through education, not innate skills. Taken in the field of scientific research online education you can develop these skills accordingly.
Types of Scientific Research
There are many types of scientific research, which are listed below:
- Basic Research
- Applied Research
- Descriptive Research
- Relational Research
- Exploratory Research
- Qualitative Research
- Qualitative Research
- Combined or Mixed Research
- Historical Research
- Case Study
All these types are categorized as per levels, methods, purpose, and other types of scientific research that are explained one by one in detail below.
Types of Scientific Research According to Level
Scientific research types are classified according to the purpose, method, and level of the research. The main goal of scientific research is to add knowledge to scientific knowledge. Therefore, the types of research carried out either reveal or apply knowledge.
There are two types of research for the level of scientific research:
- Basic research
- Applied research
What is Basic Research?
One of the researches classified according to the level of scientific research is basic research. Basic scientific research is to reveal results by adding information to scientific knowledge. The common understanding of scientific research in academia is also covered by basic research. Reflecting the understanding that knowledge is for knowledge, basic research is the result of producing scientific knowledge. Academic and university-level scientific education and research also have a basic research character. However, basic research is correct and ethical there are scientific research and publication rules arranged by its use.
What is Applied Research?
We can give science applications as an example of researching the application. Applied research is conducted to provide a practical benefit and solution to a problem. In applied research, the information in the basic research is evaluated and in the light of the information, the applied trial phase is started. That is, applied research checks the information in basic research through experimentation and tests the validity of the information in the application phase.
Types of Scientific Research According to Purpose
The purpose of scientific research is the basic criterion that reveals why the research will be done. The person who will conduct the research determines the subject and scope, as well as the reason why the research will be carried out, and reveals the focus of the subject. Each scientific research has a purpose and there are types of scientific research according to its purpose. The types of scientific research classified according to the purpose of scientific research are:
In descriptive research, there is an in-depth description and explanation. According to the type of descriptive research, it is necessary to evaluate the problem that is the subject of the research by illuminating it. For example, by applying the survey method, certain standards are established and the problem is evaluated in the context of data and information. The situation, which is revealed by various analysis methods, also reveals the relations at the center of the subject. Methods used by descriptive research; questionnaire, case study, comparative and developmental research techniques.
Relational research is the type of research that reveals whether there is a relationship between at least two events or variables. In relational research, the type of relationship is also investigated. In relational research type, the relationship between variables is understood by using explanation or prediction purposes. For example, we can explain the current relationship of other variables that affect one variable using the disclosure method. In short, relational research is a type of research that explains the course of the relationship between the variables rather than the cause-effect relationship.
The exploratory research type is to discover the relevant subject before the research. No research can be conducted without exploring the research and research results that have been done before. Therefore, exploratory research is used to reach preliminary information about the parties within the scope of the subject and to define the research problem. Exploratory research allows literature review to reach general information within the scope of the subject and collects information to expand the research universe.
Scientific Research Methods
It is divided into two as qualitative and quantitative research. Research advances the subject of research by the methods it uses. The problem and scope of the research determine what the scientific method will be. The method of scientific research is important to convey the subject in an orderly manner. According to the method of scientific research, qualitative and quantitative research is used to consistently convey the parties in the main focus of the subject. Some studies, on the other hand, may have a mixed nature and require both qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Qualitative Research Method
The qualitative research method is mostly used in social issues and fields. In this respect, we can associate qualitative research with social sciences. Qualitative research is a method that studies the meaning of an action or event within its natural domain.
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In qualitative research, the discovery of quality, not quantity, is important. The researcher, who uses qualitative research, is the interpretive subject. We can summarize the issues that require qualitative research as follows; cultural studies, sociological changes, social and individual behaviors, and communication-media studies. Observation, fieldwork, interview, content analysis, or survey methods are used in qualitative research based on social and individual behaviors.
Quantitative Research Method
Quantitative research type, on the other hand, is a scientific method that uses measurable research. In quantitative research, measurable variables are quantified using quantitative methods. Quantitative research is mostly used in the field of science. Quantitative method aimed at obtaining numerical results; Techniques such as supervised observation, survey, experiment-semi-experiment, and structured interview are applied. According to quantitative research, facts and values are separate from each other.
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This feature of quantitative research relates to the view that phenomena are constructed separately from individuals and are measurably independent. Although quantitative research applies levels such as generalizing and quantifying about certain events or subjects, it is difficult to obtain definite results in the sample from which the data is drawn. In other words, the level of generalization in quantitative research based on a specific field and measurement is also uncertain.
Real scientific research becomes valuable by considering the above types of scientific research.
The survey research method is a quantitative research method used to obtain data that occurred in the past or present, about beliefs, opinions, behavioral characteristics, variable relationships and to test several hypotheses about sociological and psychological variables from samples taken from certain populations. Data collection techniques by observation (interviews or questionnaires) and research results tend to be generalized.
The experimental method is a quantitative research method used to determine the effect of the independent variable (treatment) on the dependent variable (outcome) under controlled conditions. Conditions are controlled so that no other variables (other than the treatment variable) affect the dependent variable. So that conditions can be controlled, then in experimental research using a control group. Experimental research is often done in the laboratory.
Other Types of Scientific Research
Combination Research Methods
The combination research method is a research method based on the philosophy of pragmatism (a combination of positivism and post-positivism). Used to examine the condition of natural and artificial objects (laboratory), where researchers can act as instruments and use instruments for measurement, data collection techniques can use tests, questionnaires, and combinations (triangulation), data analysis is deductive (quantitative), and inductive (qualitative). ). The results of combination research can be useful for making generalizations and understanding meaning.
Combined methods will be very useful when both quantitative methods and qualitative methods alone are not accurate enough to be used to understand the research problem. The use of a combination method can get a better understanding when compared to using only one method.
The combination research method is divided into two, namely sequential design/model (sequential combination) and concurrent model (mixed combination). Furthermore, the sequential model (sequence) is further divided into two, namely the sequential explanatory model (sequence of proof) and sequential exploratory (sequence of discovery). As for the concurrent (mixed) model, there are two models, namely the concurrent triangulation model (a balanced mix of quantitative and qualitative) and concurrent embedded (unbalanced mix of quantitative and qualitative).
Causal Comparison Model
It is the type used to compare groups that differ with the effect of certain variables.
Examines the reasons why events, experiences, and concepts become phenomena.
It is a genre that aims to reveal qualified information about cultural traditions and lifestyles.
It aims to reach new concepts by revealing the theories included in the data at the stage of collecting qualified data.
It is the type that aims to examine the causes of an exemplary situation in terms of quality.
Historical Research Method
It is the method used to investigate, reveal and explain the events that have happened in the past to the present. Knowing the processes in the past and doing research on them helps to determine the similar problems that may be experienced today and to take the necessary precautions correctly. Historical research on the education system can set an example for us to build the education system of today and the future on more accurate foundations. Various cultural analyses can provide information about ancient cultures. Social problems can be evaluated more efficiently in the historical process.
Examples of Scientific Research Methods
We mentioned that the two most used types of scientific research methods are quantitative and qualitative research types. How these types of research are conducted is important in reaching the data. If we give an example of the methods used to access the data, we can mention that there are separate methods for the two types.
As an example of the methods used for qualitative research; we can say methods such as one-to-one interviews and text analysis. It is a one-on-one interview method to ask the participant questions about the determined subject, which is important in terms of determining the causes of the problem. Before starting a one-on-one interview, the question preparation phase should be spent efficiently. Making text analysis is based on the researcher’s access to qualified data by examining and making sense of the information contained in the documents. There are many mediums to reach the necessary texts. Examining from as many different sources as possible adds depth to the research.
Examples of methods used for quantitative research are survey research and descriptive research. Survey research is used to obtain numerical data about a large community. Numerical data on the effects of an event on certain groups can be obtained utilizing a survey.
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Today, the Internet is widely used to facilitate survey research. Descriptive research, on the other hand, helps to determine the characteristics of a researched phenomenon and to reach more information about it. It is aimed to identify the participants systematically and to create and compare their quantitative data.