Quantitative Research: Definition, Methods, Stages and Examples

Quantitative research is the type of research that can objectize the events and facts, make them observable, measure them and express them numerically . The research, which is reproducible with observation and measurement, and that is put forward objectively, is known as quantitative research. In the quantitative research method, conclusions are drawn based on superficial and numerical data. Since this method is based on numbers, the sample representing the event or phenomenon must be determined completely and correct questions can be asked.

The feature that makes quantitative research superior is that it is objective. During the process of quantitative research methods, a research group examines and comments. The purpose of quantitative research is to observe the behavior of individuals in society and to measure them objectively through experiments and to explain them in numbers. In order to interpret the links between facts, statistical data are taken into account and the results are expressed numerically.

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Quantitative Research Methods

During the quantitative research phase, the researchers reveal the results expressed in numbers from the sample representing the relevant universe. There is no in-depth analysis in quantitative research. It deals with explanations made as a result of numerical data. Some methods are applied while doing quantitative research. Let’s examine these methods.

  • Experimental method; With this method, the effect and differentiation stage of certain variables are examined. The method can be applied on two or more groups. Statistical data are acted on, comparisons are made between groups and evaluations are put forward.
  • Descriptive method; In this method, the situation of a particular subject is investigated and the results are aimed to be revealed.
  • Relational method; It is a method that examines the existence of a relationship between two variables or between more variables.
  • Causal-comparison method; a certain variable is considered and the groups that differ in this variable are compared with each other.
  • Historical method; the state of an event that occurred in the past and its effects on the current order are investigated.

Quantitative Research Examples

Each method we mentioned above is applied for different purposes in quantitative research. Let’s examine the case studies about these applications.

  • Experimental method example; An experimental method can be researched on how the textbook written with a new application will affect students’ achievements. This method reveals the cause-effect relationship between the factors and variables that affect education. Comparisons are made with the results obtained through measurement.
  • Descriptive method example; Most of the problems that arise in education are descriptive. For this reason, a descriptive method is frequently used to reveal today’s image of education. It provides many results such as measuring success rates in various student groups, defining the behaviors of teachers and school administrators, and measuring parental attitudes.
  • Example of historical method; Thanks to this method in the field of education, it is possible to examine the current educational practices and past educational practices. The current situation is trying to be understood with the results resulting from these.
  • Relational method; It can be explained by an example from education. The relationship between the success of students studying in the 6th grade in mathematics class and their success in science class is examined.
  • Examples of causal comparison method; can also be explained with an example from education. It is a good example to examine the YKS scores of the students who are in the last year of high school and take the university exam on the basis of gender.
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Quantitative Research Stages

A researcher who will begin quantitative research needs to follow some ways to achieve his goal. Let’s examine how this process, called quantitative research stages, should work.

  • Being original; The researcher should pay attention to some issues while determining the subject to be examined. The subject must be original. The research should present a new difference for science . It should avoid duplication of known issues. It should aim to contribute to science, to produce solutions to problems and to develop known ones. The fact that the subject is original is the most important issue. A good screening is required at this stage. Has the subject been dealt with before, by which methods it has been examined, the missing points must be determined well. Thus, the subject does not repeat itself. The purpose of providing support to science is found. The subject has value in terms of originality.
  • Interest; The most basic feature of the researcher is that it is related to the subject to study. He should be excited about the results. If there is little interest, scientific research is prolonged and creates a feeling of boredom on the person. This may cause it to deviate from the goal, produce simple results, or even remain incomplete.
  • To gain importance; The subject under investigation gains importance with its features such as its contribution to science, social needs or solving problems. For this reason, it is expected that the selected subject will be worth researching in a way that will not cause time loss, not waste materially, and not cause mental time loss.
  • Being scientific; It is expected to have the information and equipment that will be needed for the subject to be investigated. These issues are; Having important basic research skills such as foreign language proficiency, old writing knowledge, and analysis methods. As long as the researcher’s education, level of knowledge and ability to analyze are strong, the results will be successful. In some cases , group work may be required to complete missing parts according to scientific research needs. It would be a correct approach to work with experts on the scientific fields needed by the subject.
  • Field research; some topics require field research. In such cases, the opportunity to go to the field should be created. Data collection tools related to the subject to be researched, environmental research, the opinions of the people concerned should be collected. Failure to provide such opportunities in such cases will result in a limited study.
  • Resource research; There should be sufficient resources on the subject to be researched. It complicates research by extracting too many resources as well as having few resources. All resources should be collected, and my daughters, who are thought to be relevant, should start working.
  • Subject limitation; The subject frame should be clearly drawn at the beginning of the research. It is important to leave certain flexibility. As the research develops, the frame can be expanded and narrowed in line with the data obtained. When limiting the subject, restriction areas such as events, time and location can be determined.
  • Literature review; makes the subject understandable. Reveals the suitability of the tools that will guide the research. Research should start with scanning large-scale works. All the books, articles , references, references and all data used on the internet should be collected.
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What does quantitative research mean?

Quantitative research is the type of research that can objectify the events and facts, make them observable, measure them and express them numerically. The purpose of quantitative research is to observe the behavior of individuals in society. To measure this objectively by experiment and to explain with numbers.

What is the purpose of the experimental method, one of the quantitative research methods?

One of the quantitative research methods, the experimental method, the effects of the different variables and the differentiation phase are examined. The method can be applied on two or more groups. Statistical data are acted on, comparisons are made between groups and evaluations are put forward.

What does it mean to be scientific from the quantitative research stages?

It is expected to be scientific in quantitative research stages, to have the knowledge and equipment to be needed for the subject. These issues are; Having important basic research skills such as foreign language proficiency, old writing knowledge, and analysis methods. As long as the researcher’s education, level of knowledge and ability to analyze are strong, the results will be successful.

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