Research method is defined as the tools used to realize the qualities and objectives of a research process . When conducting a research, it is very important to choose suitable methods to achieve the goal effectively. If the research method is chosen correctly, research accuracy and result will be revealed.
Quantitative research, which is a research method, is systematically prepared for the purpose and research planned in every phase is created. In this pre-planned research design, a deviation that may occur at any stage of the research affects the validity of the results found at a significant stage.
While doing qualitative research, it is not possible to talk about a certain starting point and the stages that do not change during the research.
Among the qualitative research stages concepts of flexibility, relationship and interaction come to the fore . While doing qualitative research, the research design is quite flexible compared to quantitative research. So, what is the concept of research we have been talking about since the beginning of the article? After getting to know this concept more closely, we can better understand its methods. Research is an attempt to ensure that a particular question or problems are answered systematically and logically. The researcher is defined as the person who makes an effort to reveal the unknown.
The systematic of the research; It means that the process of collecting information, interpreting and reaching results supports each other. The rationale of the research conducted is directly proportional to the fact that the answers to the research questions are realistic. Whichever research method the researcher uses , he must pay attention to the validity issue at every stage .
The most used research method from past to present is the quantitative research method. However, since quantitative research results provide general level information, it is less preferred in today’s philosophy, education and social science disciplines. Thanks to qualitative research, philosophy and social sciences disciplines have reached more explanatory, detailed and in-depth knowledge . Now, let’s get more detailed information about qualitative research and qualitative research methods.
What is Qualitative Research?
It is very difficult to make a common definition about qualitative research that is accepted by everyone. This is because it is used as an umbrella concept and is closely related to many disciplines under the umbrella. But we have to make a definition. It is defined as a research method that plans to explore and understand social phenomena within the social environment to which they depend, with an understanding based on forming theory . Qualitative research can be defined as a research method in which open-ended questions are asked to the participants of the research and they collect data using speech methods .
The answers collected here are not essentially numerical answers. Qualitative research tries to collect information that tries to identify a topic rather than measure a topic. Qualitative research is defined as a research method that consists of speeches, opinions, impressions and ideas. In this research method, surveys are less structured. Qualitative research is considered as a research method that aims to examine the subject in depth for information . This provides a deeper understanding of research questions.
Human and social behaviors in social sciences and philosophy such as sociology , psychology, anthropology , education etc. It is examined. It is difficult to explain these behaviors with quantitative data. Quantitative research is known as a research method that shows how many people treat us. However , he cannot answer the ” why ” question. Qualitative research is more related to the social aspect. Qualitative research tries to explain a situation in relational relationships. It aims to reveal the variables that affect an event. After having knowledge about qualitative research, now let’s examine the basic stages of qualitative research.
What are the Main Stages of Qualitative Research?
- To determine the research problem
- Building the conceptual framework
- Writing the research question
- Determination of the sample
- Adopting the role of researcher
- Developing data collection tools
- Collecting data
- To make data analysis (Interpretation of findings)
- Limitation of the results obtained
- To reach generalizations
- To reach the conclusions of the research for theory
What are Qualitative Research Methods?
In qualitative research, three types of information are collected at most. This information; environmental information, process information and perceptions. Qualitative research methods are used for these three types of information and more. Among the qualitative research methods , observation, interview and examination of written documents are most commonly used. In addition to these three most qualitative research methods, qualitative research methods such as one-to-one interview, focus groups, ethnographic research, case study, text or media analysis are also used. Now let’s learn about qualitative research methods.
- Observation: It is based on the assumption that social facts can be observed and dealt with. Observation provides the opportunity to access data first hand. It is used as a data collection tool in any social or institutional environment that the researcher deems appropriate. It is necessary for the perception of the research object. The reason for preferring the observation technique;It gives the opportunity to understand group behaviors in detail and in reality.The fact that he provided the direct contact to the case in a natural environment, reached detailed information and sometimes repetition, etc. It is very advantageous in terms of. Preparation is required for observation. This preparation takes place in mental, psychological and intellectual dimensions. The researcher has to make strict training and preparation to make an original and reliable observation. They are classified according to their observation, natural or artificial environment. In these environments, observation is divided into two as structured and unstructured. The researcher is an external observer in structured observation. In the unstructured observation, he is a participant.
- Interview: Requires skill, sensitivity, concentration , understanding and discipline. During the interview, the researcher directs speech. It also aims to drill down into details. It is understood how individuals form their worlds by looking at the meanings, intentions and expectations that can not be directly observed, can be reflected in the behavior, but may arise in a certain process . It provides the opportunity to determine how they value the social environment that surrounds them with their perceptions about the outside world. In the interview, the researcher’s relationship with the interviewed person should not be neutral, distant or to hide their feelings. Balanced communication . with the researcher interviewed Empathy can reflect behaviors such as , sensitivity and humor accordingly. The researcher should be self-confident , balanced and respectful to the people interviewed. Interviewers should always listen more and talk less. The questions asked during the interview should be at a level that the interviewee can understand.
- Focus Group Discussion: A series of carefully planned discussions to achieve perceptions about a predetermined topic is called a focus group interview. It is frequently used among qualitative research methods. Its main purpose is to understand what individuals think and feel about a topic or product. There are differences with the interview. While the interview was with one person focus group interview group with 6-12 people.Qualitative research aims to obtain detailed, in-depth and rich information. Therefore, this method is not used in quantitative research. It brings together 6-12 people and reveals how the group members perceive the dynamics with a moderator about a topic. It aims to reveal how the attitudes and thoughts of the group members are, their similar and different thoughts. The subject must be determined first. Then, the selection of individuals who are talking about the subject is made. The order in which the questions will be asked is determined. The time of the session and the date of its components must be known. Questions should be started from the general. At the same time, the focus group meeting should end in 2-3 hours.Finally, it is necessary to know what to extract from here. The resulting discourse is evaluated and analyzed.
- Document Review: Qualitative research methods also include document review. It is used to collect data while doing research. Written documents, photos, videos, movies etc. are included in the documents. It enters. During a research, the researcher can obtain the data he needs without resorting to other qualitative research methods. Using this method, the researcher can save time and money. It provides diversification of the data when used with other qualitative research methods. It also increases the validity of the research.
What are the Features of Qualitative Research?
Qualitative research provides an in-depth understanding of the opinions they receive from the participants. Quantitative research provides measurement of these views. Qualitative research generally answers the ” why and why ” questions. Quantitative research is ” how many, how often ” etc. looks for answers to questions. Qualitative researches adopt an interpretive approach in terms of analysis. Quantitative research takes a descriptive attitude. By making a short comparison between the two research methods, I wanted you to see a better understanding of the differences between them. Now, what are the features of qualitative research?
- It is carried out in a natural environment.
- Reliable to researchers in data collection.
- Multiple data collection techniques are used. A single data source is not trusted. This is very important among the qualitative research features.
- Qualitative research features include induction and deductive reasoning.
- The focus of the participants on their perspectives, comments and subjective opinions is among the qualitative research features.
- Participation of the participant in their environment is also among the features of qualitative research.
- Acting with a reflective and interpretive approach is also among the features of qualitative research.
- Qualitative research features include a holistic and complex structure.
- The necessity of a disciplined study, not on the contrary, is also among the qualitative research features.
Qualitative research features are given in the above articles. It has its own unique features. When these features are realized, real qualitative research is done.
What is Qualitative Research?
It is a research method that plans to investigate and understand social phenomena within the social environment to which they depend, with an understanding based on forming theory. It can be defined as a research method in which open-ended questions are asked to the participants in the research and that collects data using speech methods. It is defined as a research method that consists of speeches, opinions, impressions and ideas.
What are Qualitative Research Methods?
Most commonly, observation, interview and examination of written documents are used. Besides, focus group meetings can be counted. Examination of the documents can be counted as one-to-one interviews.
What are the Features of Qualitative Research?
It is carried out in a natural environment and reliable to the researcher in data collection. Multiple data collection techniques are used. Acting with a reflective and interpretive approach is also among the features.