Occupational disease is the state of permanent or temporary illness, disability or psychological condition that the person experiences due to the operating conditions of the job that changes and repeats depending on the nature of the work done by the employee.
With the harmful factors brought by the profession, the human body can be affected and damaged. These diseases occur according to the conditions of the workplace or the nature of the work done according to the normal diseases. The diagnosis of occupational disease is made only in SSK Occupational Diseases Hospital” in our country .
It can be protected from occupational diseases by the following methods:
- Health hazardous substances used in the workplace can be changed.
- Separation of business types that create harmful substances, noise, rays and chemical risks. In this way, the worker will be less affected.
- As a requirement of the work, the working environments exposed to heavy dust are wetted and dust is dispersed.
- Necessary cleaning is done routinely. Workplace hygiene is provided. The places where harmful substances are collected are maintained and cleaned. Ambient is ventilated.
- Various analyzes and checks are made and the adequacy of the measures is checked.
- Employees should protect themselves under personal protection and use gloves and gloves.
Features of Occupational Disease
- Occupational disease is related to the work done by the person. It occurs over time or suddenly as a result of exposure to the harmful effects required by the job.
- It is seen in people who work in the same environment and conditions for a long time. People who are exposed to short-term adverse conditions are not affected. For example, someone who has a hearing loss has been working in a noisy job for more than 2 years.
- Although some diseases are seen temporarily, they are usually continuous diseases.
- The disease is common in those working in the same occupational group.
- By taking the necessary measures, people can be prevented from getting sick.
- It depends on many factors, not one. The lifestyle of the person also affects this.
- Diseases that are not seen in the general society, are specific to certain occupational groups.
- Occupational disease can suddenly rise, or it can be seen after many years. It is related to how much the person has been exposed to.
- Although it is not a common disease, it is a socially important disease. The possibility of getting caught can pass to all employees of the institution.
- In order to diagnose occupational disease, precise controls and measurements are needed.
- Diagnosis is made with various screening and tests.
- Employees should be informed about the workable diseases that may occur.
- The disease affects not only the person, but also his environment and family.
- Failure to be diagnosed or late will cause larger problems. You can be late for treatment.
- Personal precautions may not be sufficient. Institutional measures should be taken to prevent disease.
- Along with the diagnosis, compensation is made to the employee and the incapacity payment is made.
Types of Occupational Diseases
In order for a disease to be accepted as an occupational disease, it is expected that there is a connection between the job and the occupation. Occupational Diseases is divided into types according to the characteristics of work done and workplace factors.
Physically Disabled Occupational Diseases: Occupational diseases that develop due to physical factors exposed in the workplace environment.
- Hearing loss due to noise and shaking
- Diseases seen in hot and cold environments
- Diseases affected by working at low and high pressure
- Diseases caused by radiation (ionizing and non-ionic) effects
Chemical-Related Occupational Diseases: They are the most common chemical substances that cause frequent diseases that are encountered at workplace origin.
- Poisoning caused by heavy metals (such as lead, mercury).
- Aromatic and aliphatic compounds
Diseases Caused by Dusts: Generally causes respiratory diseases. Dusts are stored in the lung and cause chronic respiratory diseases. In some cases, this event can progress to cancer.
Psycho-Social Diseases: It is seen in very busy and stress-exposed business groups.
- Manic-Depressive Syndrome
Diseases Related to Biological Factors: Tuberculosis, parasitic diseases, anthrax are examples of these diseases. It is known that bacteria and viruses are causative agents.
Diseases Related to Ergonomic Factors: Working inappropriately in workplace conditions, lifting weights, carrying loads etc. it causes many health problems.
- Hernia of the boat
- Herniated disc
- Spinal disc slippage
Can Occupational Disease be Prevented?
Occupational disease is a preventable disease when necessary precautions are taken. It is important that the employees are adequately informed and the employer’s sensitivity. Early diagnosis and treatment is also important for those working in the risky group. The measures to be taken to prevent occupational diseases are as follows:
- Necessary cleaning and hygiene measures should be taken in the workplace and personnel should be obeyed to these rules.
- The workplace should be regularly ventilated.
- Staff should be trained frequently on this issue and should raise awareness.
- Work clothes and daily clothes of the personnel should be separate and these should be kept in their personal cabinets.
- It should be ensured that personnel use all kinds of equipment required by the job.
- Personnel whose resting situation is required must be allowed
- The employer should not employ uninsured workers.
- Personnel whose health condition is not suitable should not be employed in heavy jobs.
- Depending on the nature of the job, the necessary health checks should be carried out before hiring the staff. Personnel should receive the report “Can work in heavy and dangerous jobs”.
- Health checks and analysis should be performed routinely at regular intervals.
- Periodic checks of tools such as machinery and equipment required to perform the work at the workplace should be carried out regularly.
- Occupational diseases hospitals should take into consideration the warnings about this issue and the recommendations of the workplace doctor should be listened to.
- It is also very important that employees and managers receive “Occupational Health and Safety Training”. In this way, employees can get detailed information about occupational disease and learn their rights.
In Which Occupations Does Common Occupational Diseases Occur?
- Mining and foundry workers : People working in extremely hot places such as mines and foundries often have cardiovascular diseases. Heat stroke can trigger heart attacks. Very cold environments can also cause heart spasms.
- Police, clerk, teaching: Varicose veins problems are seen in profession groups that need to survive for a long time. At the same time, hearing losses are also encountered because they are exposed to loud sounds.
- Stockbroker, police, soldier, manager, lawyer, doctor, journalist, teacher: People working in this profession group are exposed to intense stress. According to experts, anxiety and depression diseases are common in these people. Again, depending on stress, stomach, intestine, gastritis and colon diseases are also frequently seen.
- Banking, accounting, journalism, secretariat: These are the occupational groups that constantly work at the computer for a long time without movement. Neck and lumbar hernias, compression of the wrist vessels, carpal tunnel syndrome and nerve compression.
- Surgeons, torners, civil engineers, tennis players: People who stand for long periods of time have knee calcification and fluid loss in the knee. At the same time, problems called tennis elbow are encountered in professions that use their arms a lot.
- Footballers, masters: People who use their legs constantly have menus ruptures and cartilage disruptions in the knees.
- Industrial workers, printers, painters: It is the most serious occupational group in life disease. Cancer diseases are very common in this type of profession, as they are very intimate with gas, tar and chemicals harmful to health.
What is an occupational disease?
Occupational disease is the state of illness experienced by the insured personnel due to the nature of the work done, due to various factors. These diseases may arise from chronic disease, physical or psychological origin. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for the disease to be prevented.
How does an occupational disease occur?
Occupational disease occurs as a result of the employee working in an inappropriate environment for a long time. The employee has been exposed to factors such as chemical and noise that are not suitable for long-term health. Diseases occur later in life due to exposure to bad conditions.
Does an employee with occupational disease have rights?
Some material and moral rights are given by the employer to an employee whose occupational disease occurs. These rights can be in the form of incapacity allowance, compensation. At the same time, income is attributed to the relatives of the deceased, and marriage allowance is given to their children at the age of marriage.